African Oral Narratives
Military Intelligence in Apartheid-era South Africa

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Former police commissioner General Johann van der Merwe at a South African Police (SAP) ceremony on December 1, 1989.

Former police commissioner General Johann van der Merwe at a South African Police (SAP) ceremony on December 1, 1989.

Date: December 1, 1989
This colour image of General Johann van der Merwe, last police commissioner of apartheid South Africa, is one of a series of photographs taken by photographer Doug Lee at a SAP ceremony on December 1, 1989.
Former police commissioner Hennie de Witt during a South African Police (SAP) ceremony on December 1, 1989.

Former police commissioner Hennie de Witt during a South African Police (SAP) ceremony on December 1, 1989.

Date: December 1, 1989
This colour image of former police commissioner Hennie de Witt is one of a series of photographs taken by photographer Doug Lee at a SAP ceremony on December 1, 1989.
Eugene Terre'Blanche, Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) leader,  on horseback during a right-wing rally in Klerksdorp in 1993.

Eugene Terre'Blanche, Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) leader, on horseback during a right-wing rally in Klerksdorp in 1993.

Date: October 9, 1993
This colour image of the leader of the white supremacist Afrikaner Resistance Movement (AWB) Eugene Terre'Blanche on horseback, is one of a series of photographs taken by photographer Doug Lee during a right-wing rally in Klerksdorp in October 1993.
Youths carrying the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (African Resistance Movement) flag during a right-wing rally in Klerksdorp in 1993.

Youths carrying the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (African Resistance Movement) flag during a right-wing rally in Klerksdorp in 1993.

Date: October 9, 1993
This colour image of youths carrying the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) flag is one of a series of photographs taken by photographer Doug Lee during a right-wing rally in Klerksdorp in October 1993.
Storm troopers of the Afrikaners Weerstandsbeweging (Afrikaner Resistance Movement) carrying the South African flag during a right-wing rally in Klerksdorp in 1993.

Storm troopers of the Afrikaners Weerstandsbeweging (Afrikaner Resistance Movement) carrying the South African flag during a right-wing rally in Klerksdorp in 1993.

Date: October 9, 1993
This colour image of Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) storm troopers is one of a series of photographs taken by photographer Doug Lee of the AWB rally in Klerksdorp in October 1993.
Constand Viljoen, former chief of the South African Defence Force and leader of the Volksfront, on the night he decided to go to the polls during South Africa's first democratic elections in 1994.

Constand Viljoen, former chief of the South African Defence Force and leader of the Volksfront, on the night he decided to go to the polls during South Africa's first democratic elections in 1994.

Date: April 27, 1994
This colour image of Constand Viljoen is one of a series taken by photographer Doug Lee of the night Viljoen went to the polls during the 1994 elections. Constand Viljoen was former chief of the South African Defence Force and leader of a grouping of right-wing organisations called the Afrikaner Volksfront (Afrikaner People's Front). In March 1994, an attempt to protect the government of Lucas Mangope in the bantustan of Bophuthatswana during a popular uprising was wrecked by the intervention of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB)despite being asked not to participate in the action because of their racist views. After this incident Viljoen left the Volksfront and registered the Freedom Front as a political party to represent conservative Afrikaner interests. It is believed that this decision by Constand Viljoen to finally take part in the 1994 elections prevented a violent uprising by Afrikaners.
Former South African president FW de Klerk before a television interview at the Union Buildings in Pretoria in 1994.

Former South African president FW de Klerk before a television interview at the Union Buildings in Pretoria in 1994.

Date: 1994
This colour image of FW de Klerk is one of a series of images taken by photographer Doug Lee of president FW de Klerk before a television interview at the Union Buildings in Pretoria in 1994. De Klerk was the South African president at the time of the first democratic elections in South Africa in 1994.
Generals Magnus Malan and Constand Viljoen shaking hands at a meeting in September 1997.

Generals Magnus Malan and Constand Viljoen shaking hands at a meeting in September 1997.

Date: September 6, 1997
This colour image of Generals Magnus Malan (former minister of defence) and Constand Viljoen (former chief of the SADF and leader of the Volksfront) shaking hands at a meeting, is one of a series of images taken by photographer Doug Lee at a meeting between the latter with General Tienie Groenewald and Colonel Jan Breytenbach on September 6, 1997.
General Tienie Groenewald, former chief director of military intelligence, on his way to a meeting in September 1997.

General Tienie Groenewald, former chief director of military intelligence, on his way to a meeting in September 1997.

Date: September 6, 1997
This colour image of General Tienie Groenewald, former chief director of military intelligence, is one of a series of images taken by photograhper Doug Lee of a meeting between General Groenewald, Magnus Malan (former minister of defence), General Constand Viljoen (former chief of the SADF and leader of the Afrikaner Volksfront) and Colonel Jan Breytenbach on September 6, 1997.
A rare photograph of former South African president PW Botha after retirement at his homestead, Die Anker, in the Wilderness in the Southern Cape in May 2003.

A rare photograph of former South African president PW Botha after retirement at his homestead, Die Anker, in the Wilderness in the Southern Cape in May 2003.

Date: May 2003
This colour image of former South African president PW Botha, commonly known as 'Die Groot Krokodil' (Afrikaans for 'The Big Crocodile'), is one of a series of rare photographs taken by photographer Doug Lee of PW Botha in his old age at his homestead, Die Anker, in May 2003.
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