African Oral Narratives
Military Intelligence in Apartheid-era South Africa

Unemployment

Unemployment is a large problem in all three communities of Maandagshoek, Rammolutsi and Sebokeng. In Maandagshoek unemployment is extremely high. Profitable mining operations since the 1990s have brought very little development to the community, some residents would claim it has brought none. The mining operations have also done little to reduce the unemployment rate. The promise of work for surrounding residents by mining companies in the platinum rich Maandagshoek proved futile when these companies overlooked the local people in favor of recruiting most of their employees from outside the community. Although many of the residents have been employed in the mines at some point in time, they are outspoken on the issue of broken promises from mine management and feel strongly that the mines have not done enough for the community. For example a physically disabled resident was promised a job at the Modikwa mine when it opened. However the job was not forthcoming and he remains unemployed. The future seems dismal for many residents, as one resident observes "…our children will learn to steal because of the issue of the mine, because these children are sitting at home, they are looking for work now, there is no work so now our children will do illegal things." The unemployment rate in Rammolutsi is unacceptably high at 80%+. The lack of productive/job-creating activity in Rammolutsi/Viljoenskroon has resulted in the vast majority of residents being without formal employment. Increased job-shedding in the commercial farming sector as a direct result of mechanization has also exacerbated the unemployment situation in Rammolutsi. Future prospects remain bleak, although the residents seem more optimistic than those of Maandagshoek. Sebokeng residents generally believe that unemployment has escalated in recent years and that poverty is worse than ever. The workers of Sebokeng, employed in the surrounding heavy industries, like SAMANCOR and ISCOR, were among the first to experience the avalanche of retrenchment that followed in the decade after 1994 when industrial restructuring and privatization led to the loss of waged employment.

This interview with Amelia Mavuso, an unemployed single young woman heading her household, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Bafana Ezekiel Makhanya, a retrenched SAMANCOR worker and community activist, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Flora Mpusi and Flora Makwa, both elderly women in Chief Vilakazi’s household, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Maandagshoek in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Kate Masabatha Makhanya, an elderly crèche owner, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Lineman Jonas Dyonase, a retrenched SAMANCOR worker and tuck-shop owner, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Ndaba David Nzunga, an unemployed community youth activist and music enthusiast, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Rammolutsi in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Nicodemus Khayakhole Makhanya, an unemployed ‘Bishop’ of an indigenous church, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Sara Maduma, a worker at a private clinic in the nearby town of Vereeninging, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Motseki Johannes Ngake was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Simon Siloane, who is physically disabled and unemployed, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Maandagshoek in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Simon Vilakazi, son of Chief Vilakazi and secretary for the Matimatsatsi Tribal Authority, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Maandagshoek in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Thomas Molefe, an elderly retrenched SAMANCOR worker, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with government social worker Priscilla Matshidiso Ramogale was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with pensioner Molefi John Phasha was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Rammolutsi in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Mokete Tsolotlo, an unemployed worker and lifelong Rammolutsi resident, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Rammolutsi in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with unemployed youth Happy Jabulani Malindi was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This is a still image of Bafana Makhanya, retrenched SAMANCOR worker and community activist of Sebokeng, during an oral history interview conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in 2007 for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
This is a still image of David Nzungu, an unemployed community activist and music enthusiast of Rammolutsi, during an oral history interview conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in 2007 for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
This is a still image of Emmanuel Makgoga, community leader/activist and spokesperson of the Maandagshoek Development Committee, during an oral history interview conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in 2007 for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
The first interview with Emmanuel Mokgoga, community leader/activist and spokesperson of the Maandagshoek Development Committee, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Maandagshoek in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This is a still image of Happy Malindi, an unemployed youth of Sebokeng, during an oral history interview conducted in 2007 by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
Part one of the the first interview with Thulo Ezekiel Motseki, a gravely ill retrenched worker, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
The first part of the interview with Gabriel Mashakhale, pastor of the local branch of the Apostolic Church and ex-ward councillor, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Rammolutsi in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
Part one of the second interview with Emmanuel Mokgoga, community leader/activist and spokesperson of the Maandagshoek Development Committee, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Maandagshoek in 2008 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
Part two of the first interview with Thulo Ezekiel Motseki, a gravely ill retrenched worker, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
The second part of the interview with Gabriel Mashakhale, pastor of the local branch of the Apostolic Church and ex-ward councillor, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Rammolutsi in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
Part two of the second interview with Emmanuel Mokgoga, community leader/activist and spokesperson of the Maandagshoek Development Committee, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Maandagshoek in 2008 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This is a still image of Priscilla Ramogale, a social worker from Sebokeng, during an oral history interview conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in 2007 for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
The second interview with Thulo Ezekiel Motseki, a gravely ill retrenched worker, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2008 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This is a still image of Thomas Molefe, an elderly retrenched SAMANCOR worker of Sebokeng, during an oral history interview conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in 2007 for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
This is a still image of Thulo Ezekiel Motseki, a gravely ill retrenched worker of Sebokeng, during an oral history interview conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in 2007 for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
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