African Oral Narratives
Military Intelligence in Apartheid-era South Africa

Sebokeng

The community of Sebokeng is located in the mid-Vaal area (south of Johannesburg) of Gauteng province. Sebokeng is one of the oldest urban 'townships' in the area and was established under the apartheid regime as a home for workers servicing the large industrial plants in the area such as SASOL, ISCOR and later, SAMANCOR. In the early-mid 1980's Sebokeng was at the heart of what came to be known as the 'Vaal Uprising,' when residents rose up against the unjust and inequitable urbanization policies of the apartheid regime and began the Asinamali Campaign of boycotting payments of rates and services. Today, several hundred thousand people inhabit this large community. While some still work in the surrounding heavy industries and further away in the manufacturing and service industries in and around Johannesburg, many others living in the community have been retrenched (laid off) over the past several years as a result of industrial 'restructuring,' privatization and/or corporatization of former state-run industrial enterprises. Correspondingly, there has been a huge increase in the levels of general unemployment as well as those active in the local 'informal' economy. Basic service provision and housing is arguably better than in most smaller non-urban communities but remains highly uneven. This far-flung and populous community falls under the Lekoa-Vaal municipality and while the African National Congress (ANC) is the dominant political force in the area, there is also a long history of presence/activity by the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) as well as independent community organizations.

This interview with Amelia Mavuso, an unemployed single young woman heading her household, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Bafana Ezekiel Makhanya, a retrenched SAMANCOR worker and community activist, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Kate Masabatha Makhanya, an elderly crèche owner, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Lineman Jonas Dyonase, a retrenched SAMANCOR worker and tuck-shop owner, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Maria Mabeko Nkomo, a divorced traditional healer/herbalist, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Nicodemus Khayakhole Makhanya, an unemployed ‘Bishop’ of an indigenous church, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Sara Maduma, a worker at a private clinic in the nearby town of Vereeninging, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Motseki Johannes Ngake was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Thomas Molefe, an elderly retrenched SAMANCOR worker, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with Tsebo Knowledge Ngema, a recently finished matric student, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with government social worker Priscilla Matshidiso Ramogale was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with retired policeman Siqelo Fredrick Mkhize was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with unemployed youth Happy Jabulani Malindi was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This interview with widowed pensioner Nomvula Paulina September was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This is a still image of Bafana Makhanya, retrenched SAMANCOR worker and community activist of Sebokeng, during an oral history interview conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in 2007 for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
This is a still image of Daniel Masemola, a widowed pensioner from Sebokeng, during an oral history interview conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in 2007 for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
The first interview with widowed pensioner Daniel Serame Masemola was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
The first part of the second interview with widowed pensioner Daniel Serame Masemola was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2008 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This is a still image of Happy Malindi, an unemployed youth of Sebokeng, during an oral history interview conducted in 2007 by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
This is a still image of Nomvula September, a widowed pensioner from Sebokeng, during an oral history interview conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in 2007 for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
Part one of the the first interview with Thulo Ezekiel Motseki, a gravely ill retrenched worker, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
Part two of the first interview with Thulo Ezekiel Motseki, a gravely ill retrenched worker, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2007 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This is a still image of Priscilla Ramogale, a social worker from Sebokeng, during an oral history interview conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in 2007 for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
The second interview with Thulo Ezekiel Motseki, a gravely ill retrenched worker, was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2008 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
The second part of the second interview with widowed pensioner Daniel Serame Masemola was conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in Sebokeng in 2008 as part of the South African History Archive's Alternative History Project, titled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'.
This is a still image of Thomas Molefe, an elderly retrenched SAMANCOR worker of Sebokeng, during an oral history interview conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in 2007 for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
This is a still image of Thulo Ezekiel Motseki, a gravely ill retrenched worker of Sebokeng, during an oral history interview conducted by Dale McKinley and Ahmed Veriava in 2007 for SAHA's Alternative History Project, entitled 'Forgotten Voices in the Present'. The still image was derived from the DVD 'A Dream Deferred' which was produced in 2008 as part of this project.
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